5CE4A : SURVEYING – II (L3) 


Units  Contents of the subjects 
Trigonometric Leveling: Trigonometric leveling, Objects accessible and non accessible, Determination of levels object when two instrument positions in same and different vertical planes. Curvature, Refraction and Axis Signal corrections, Determination of difference in elevations of points by trigonometric leveling by single observation method (angle of elevation, angle of depression), reciprocal method.  
Curve Surveying: Elements of circular (Simple, compound and reverse) curves, transition curves, degrees of curve, Linear and angular Methods of setting out circular and transition curves.  
Triangulation: Merits and demerits of traversing, triangulation and trilateration. Grades of triangulation, Strength of figure, field procedure of triangulation.Reconnaissance and selection of triangulation stations. Indivisibility of stations and calculation of the heights of towers. Equipment needed for base line measurement, corrections to base line. Satellite station and base line extension. 

Errors in Surveying: Classification of errors in surveying. The probability curve, its equation and properties, theory of least squares, weight, most probable valve, probable errors, standard errors. Normal equation correlates. Adjustment of Triangulation Figures: Adjustment of levels. Adjustment of triangulations figures, Braced quadrilateral Triangle with central, station. Approximate and method of least squares for figure adjustment, Trilateration.  
Field Astronomy: Definitions of terminology used in Astronomy, Co‐ordinate Systems. Relationships between different Co‐ordinate systems. Astronomical Triangle, Napier’s Rule. Different methods of determination of Azimuth. Electronic distance measurement and use of Total station. 
Suggested Readings:
1Surveying – Vol. I & II by K.R. Arora Satandard Book House,Delhi.
2 Surveying Vol. 2 & 3 by B C Punmia Laxmi Publications, Delhi.
3 Advance Surveying by Sathees Kumar, R.Sathis Kumar , N. Madhu, Pearson Education
4.Plane and Geodetic Surveying Vol.I &II, BY David Clark, CBS Publishers and Distributers.
5. Surveying Vol.2 by S.K.Duggal, Tata Mc Graw Hill, Delhi.
6. Advance Surveying by A.M.Chandra, New Age Inetrnational, Delhi.