**4ME3: FLUID MECHANICS**

Basic Definitions and Fluid Properties: Definition of Fluid, Incompressible and compressible fluids, Fluid as a continuum, mass, density, specific weight, relative density, specific volume, bulk modulus, velocity of sound Ideal fluid viscosity, Newtonian and Non Newtonian fluid, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature and pressure on viscosity, surface tension capillarity, vapour pressure and cavitation. Fluid Statics: General differential equation, hydrostatics manometry, fluid forces on submerged surfaces, curved surfaces, aerostatics, Isothermal atmosphere, polytropic atmosphere, static stability, the international atmosphere, submerged bodies, floating bodies.

Kinematics and Conservation of Mass: Flow classifications, Fluid velocity and acceleration, streamlines and the stream function, pathlines and streak lines, deformation of a fluid element, vorticity and circulation. Irrotational and rotational flow, flow net, laplace equation, conservation of mass and the continuity equation for three dimensions. Fluid Momentum: The Momentum theorem, applications of the momentum theorem, equation of motion, Euler's equation of motion, Integration of Euler's equation of motion, Bernoulli's equation, applications of Bernoulli's pilot tube, equation of motion for viscous fluid, Navier Stoke's equation.

Orifice Discharging: Free Jet, vena contracts, co-efficient of contraction, velocity and discharge, coefficient of resistance, orifices and mouthpieces, nozzles and weires. Flow Through Pipes: Reynold's experiment, Darcy's Weisback equation, loss of head due to sudden enlargements, contraction, entrance, exit obstruction, bend, pipe fittings, total and hydraulic gradient lines, Flow through pipe line, pipes in series, parallel, transmission of power through pipes.

Laminar Flow: Simple solution of Navier Stokes equations, Hagen - Poiseuille flow, Plans Poiseuille flow and coutte flow. Turbulent Flow: Variation of friction factor with Reynold's number, Prandtl mixing length hypothesis applied to pipe flow, velocity distribution in smooth pipes, sough pipes, Universal pipe friction laws, Colebrook White formula. Dimensional Analysis: Buckingham variables, model similitude, force ratio, Reynold's, Froude's, Mach, Weber and Euler numbers and their applications, undistorted model distorted model scale effect.

The Boundary Layer: Description of the boundary layer, boundary Layer thickness boundary layer separation and control, Prandtl boundary layer equation, solution for laminar boundary layer, momentum equation for the boundary layer, flat plate in uniform free stream with no pressures gradients, approximate momentum analysis laminar boundary, aerofoils theory. Flow Round a Body: Drag skin friction drag, pressure drag, combined skin friction and pressure drag (Profile drag) wave drag, lift induced drag, Flow past sphere and cylinder.

**Suggested Readings:**

1. Fluid Mechanics, Frank M. White, McGraw-Hill Publications.

2. Fluid Mechanics, Cengel and Cimbala, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.

3. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, Modi and Seth, Standard Book House.

4. Fluid Mechanics, Jain A.K., Khanna Publishers.

5. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Fox and McDonald, John Wiley and Sons.